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Guide to IB Physical Education Class
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Soccer Vocabulary

 

Penalty Kick - Given to the attackers team when a violation is committed by a defender in his penalty area.

Goal Kick- Taken when the offense kicks the ball over the end line.

Corner Kick- Taken when the defense kicks the ball over the end line.

Throw-In- When inbounding the ball use both feet on the ground and throw the ball with two hands over head.

Off Sides- An attacker is offside if there are not at least two defenders between "himself" and the goal at the time the ball is played to "him". 

Kick off- Starts the game and restarts the game after each goal.

Punt- The kick the goalie makes directly after she stops a shot.

Dribbling- Moving the ball forward using your feet while maintaining control of the ball.

 

History

Author Last Name, Author First Name, Author Initials(s). "Soccer." Encyclopedia. Today’s Science. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 8 June 2011. <http://www.2facts.com/article/xso137800a>.

England is considered the home of modern soccer. The game began there in the mid-1800s, played mainly in the great public (private) schools of the day. Association football clubs began to form about 1855, and in 1863 the London Football Association was founded; it published the first set of standardized rules that same year. The game developed quickly as a spectator sport that transcended its narrower class origins. Professional players were admitted into Football Association-supervised play in the mid-1880s. The game was thereafter dominated by professional clubs and increasingly drew its public from the working class. British professional play today is governed by the Football League, founded in 1888.

Soccer began to spread internationally in the 1870s and within a decade had gained adherents in central Europe, where it became immensely popular. Spain, Germany, Italy, France, and other European nations took up the game early in the 20th century, formed clubs, and began to field teams in international competition. The game had reached an extraordinarily high level of play by the mid-1900s in South America, where soccer had been introduced by English emigrants in the late 1800s. In competitions after World War II, nations from the Middle East and Asia began to field formidable, well-trained teams.

Soccer was first seen in the Olympic Games in 1900 and was included as a medal sport in 1908, but professional players could not officially compete until 1984. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), formed in 1904, governs international competition and, in 1930, sponsored the first World Cup. This round-robin tournament between qualifying nations, held every four years, has evolved into one of the major sporting events in the world. Only 13 teams competed the first year (with host country Uruguay the winner); today, more than 170 national teams seek to be among the 24 that qualify to compete in the tournament. Also governed by FIFA, the women's World Cup match was first played in Mexico City in 1991.

 

Strategy

Author Last Name, Author First Name, Author Initials(s). "Soccer." Encyclopedia. Today’s Science. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 8 June 2011. <http://www.2facts.com/article/xso137800a>.

Opponents gain control of the ball by intercepting it or by tackling opposing players. Unlike a tackle in American football where a player is thrown to the ground, tackling in soccer means taking the ball away by use of the feet. The player making the tackle may not deliberately kick, trip, or hold the opponent directly. The penalty for these infractions, or for using hands or arms to propel the ball, is a direct free kick by the opponent from the place where the infraction occurred. A penalty kick is awarded if the infraction takes place within the penalty area--the kicker, standing 12 yd (11 m) away from the center of the goal, aims a kick directly at the goal with only the goalkeeper to attempt to obstruct the ball. For other infractions--such as deliberate obstruction of other players or time-wasting tactics--an indirect free kick, which must be touched by at least one other player on the kicking team before a goal can be scored, is awarded to the opposition. The referee may also assess other penalties, warning players for unnecessary rough play and, if necessary, removing them from the game.

 

Rules of game

Author Last Name, Author First Name, Author Initials(s). "Soccer." Encyclopedia. Today’s Science. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 8 June 2011. <http://www.2facts.com/article/xso137800a>.

The only major rule change in the 20th century was the offside rule, by which a player is declared offside (that is, potentially in an unfairly advantageous position) if he or she is nearer the opponent's goal line than the ball at the moment the ball is played, unless one of the following exceptions applies: The player is in his or her own half of the field; two opponents are nearer to their own goal line than the player is; the ball was last touched or played by an opponent; or the player received the ball directly from a kick or a throw-in. An offside position is penalized by awarding an indirect free throw to the opposing team. Another recent rule revision allows for substitute players: two substitutes (without resubstitution) under international rules, up to five substitutes under U.S. regulations.

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